How To Choose Dental Bone Graft Materials
The main function of bone grafting materials is to provide mechanical support and stimulate osteo-regeneration, with the ultimate goal of bone replacement. The choice of graft material used to perform any bone grafting procedure depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to, patient concerns, the type of surgical procedure, medical history, and bone quantity/quality issues.
Type of Surgery
While the best bone graft material for dental implants is simultaneously osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic, material that has all three properties is not always practical or abundantly available. Therefore, the vast majority of bone graft procedures are performed using the second-best option.
Whether the surgery involves ridge or socket preservation, lateral ridge augmentation, a sinus lift, or stabilization of an immediately-placed implant, most surgeons will select an allograft, a mixture of cortical and cancellous bone, because it is readily available for purchase in sufficient qualities to fill most any defect and it provides predictable results.
While generally considered safe, patients sometimes decline a procedure involving the use of allografts or xenografts citing concerns that they could be a possible vector for disease transmission. This forces the surgeon to look for other treatment alternatives such as autographs or alloplasts.
It is no secret that the patient’s overall health has a tremendous effect on the success rate of bone graft placement for dental implants. After all, the success of the surgery depends on stimulating the body’s own response mechanisms.
If the patient has a suppressed immune system, altered healing (diabetes, autoimmune diseases), thyroid issues, nutritional deficiencies or malabsorption (bariatric surgery patients), or other chronic health issues, the possibility of graft or implant failure is a real concern, and bone grafting is contraindicated until such time that the health issue can be controlled or resolved.